# demographic variables

**1.Question**

What demographic variables were measured at the nominal level of measurement in the Oh et al.(2014)study?

**Answer:**The demographic variabless measured at the nominal level include non-smoker,non-drinker,history of fracture,regular exercise and are considered nominal because can be describe by precentages, and mode.

**2.Question**

What statistic were calculated to describe body mass index(MBI) in this study?Were these appropiate?

**Answer:**Mean and standard deviation were the statistic used to calculated BMI.Because BMI is an interval-ratio variable,mean and stadard deviation are appropiate.

**3.Question**

Were the distributions of scores for BMI similar for the intervention and control groups?

**Answer:**The distribution of scores for BMI was similar for intervention and control groups because the mean and standard deviation were very similar.

**4.Question**

Was there a significant difference in BMI between the intervention and control groups?

**Answer:**There was not a significant difference in BMI between the intervention group and the control group.

**5.Question**

Bssed on the sample size of N=41,what frequency and percentage of the sample smoked?What frequency and percentage of the sample were non-drinkers(alcohol)?Show your calculations and round to the nearest whole percent.

**Answer:**

Frequency of participants who smoked=0+0=0

Percentage of participants who smoked=0%

Frequency of participants who were non-drinkers=20+20=40

**6.Question**

What measurement method was used to measure the bone mineral density(BMD) for the study participants?Discuss the quality of this measurement method and document your response.

**Answer:**The bone mineral density (BMD) was measurement by ratio/interval level.The mean and standard deviation equal central location and dispersion gives us the shape of the graph.

**7.Question**

What statics was calculated to determine differences between the intervention and control groups for the lumbar and femur neck BMDs?Were the groups significantly different for BMDs?

**Answer:**The statistic used to to determined the difference between the intervention and control groups for the lumbar and femur neck BMDs was the mean.The value between lumbar and femur neck does not show us a significant difference.

**8.Question**

The researchers stated that there were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics of the intervention and control groups(see Table 2).Are these groups heterogeneous or homogeneous at the beginning of the study?Why is this important in testing the effectiveness of the therapeutic lifestyle modification(TLM)program?

**Answer: **These groups are homogeneous,homogeneous scores are similar,and heterogeneous scores are diferent having a wide variation.This was a key factor because if the groups were heterogeneous the the data results would have been broader and more detailed.I feel as if if we compared the groups with similarities in the beggining, then this allows the results to be more profound when all is concluded.

**9.Question**

Oh ET AL.(2014,P.296)stared that adherence rate to the TLM program was 99.6%.Discuss the importance of intervention adherence,and document your response.

**Answer:**The adherence rate was almost at 100% during the 2 week time period.If the adherence rate would have ben less then the significance and importance of the results would have declined significantlly.I would not put in question the data results as they 99.6% for adherence and the group showed increase.I believe the TLM program is effective.

**10.Question**

Was the sample for this study adequately described?

**Answer:**Yes, the sample was adequate, the group showed that the program worked, the program consisted of a mix of individuals and even though it functioned well, I believe if the study was done with more individuals and done at longer intervals, then it would indicate and show more accurate results.