Defining the Problem and Research Methods

Assignment 2: Defining the Problem and Research Methods

Sections 1 and 2 of Major Assessment 7: Using an Epidemiological Approach to Critically Analyze a Population Health Problem

How do culture and environment influence health? What role does personality play in health outcomes? How do stressful life events influence disease? As a health care professional, you have most likely witnessed the influence of psychosocial factors on individual health. These factors also have a significant impact on population health. Chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and heart disease, as well as degenerative diseases, can be studied at the population level through the use of epidemiologic methods (Friis, 2014). The insights gained from this type of research can then positively impact health outcomes locally, nationally, and globally.

As you continue working on Assignment 2, which is due by Thursday 04/05/2018 Day 5 of this week, consider how psychosocial factors influence your population and population health issue.

To complete:

In 5–6 pages, APA format with a minimum of five (5) scholarly references (see list of required readings below), write the following sections of your paper:

Section 1: The Problem

1) Introduction (ending with a purpose statement: “the purpose of this paper is…)

2) A brief outline of the environment you selected (i.e., home, workplace, school)

3) A summary of your selected population health problem in terms of person, place, and time, and the magnitude of the problem based on data from appropriate data resources (Reference the data resources you used.)

4) Research question/hypothesis (same as the one in assignment 1. I’m including an attachment of assignment 1 you did for me).

Section 2: Research Methods

1) The epidemiologic study design you would use to assess and address your population health problem

2) Assessment strategies (i.e., if you were conducting a case-control study, how would you select your cases and controls? Regarding the methods and tools, you would use to make these selections, how is it convenient for you as the researcher or as the investigator to use this tool?)

3) Summary of the data collection activities (i.e., how you would collect data—online survey, paper/pen, mailing, etc.)

4) Conclusion of the whole paper.

Required Readings

Friis, R. H., & Sellers, T. A. (2014). Epidemiology for public health practice (5th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Chapter 10, “Data Interpretation Issues”

Chapter 15, “Social, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Epidemiology”

Appendix A – Guide to the Critical Appraisal of an Epidemiologic/Public Health Research Article

In Chapter 10, the authors describe issues related to data interpretation and address the main types of research errors that need to be considered when conducting epidemiologic research, as well as when analyzing published results. It also presents techniques for reducing bias. Chapter 15 features psychosocial, behavioral, and social epidemiology. Appendix A includes criteria to consider when reading an empirical journal article.

Elliott, A. M., Smith, B. H., Penny, K., Smith, W. C., & Chambers, W. A. (1999). The epidemiology of chronic pain in the community. The Lancet, 354(9186), 1248–1252.

This article describes an early epidemiologic study on chronic pain. Carefully review this article noting the structure of the research design, assessment and data collection, and analysis strategies. You will refer to this article for Discussion 2.

Oppenheimer, G. M. (2010). Framingham Heart Study: The first 20 years. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 53(1), 55–61.

The Framingham Heart Study is a landmark epidemiologic study that began in the 1940s. The author of this article reviews the history of the Framingham Heart Study and its contribution to population health. As you read this article, consider any sources of bias or potential conflict of interest. You will refer to this article for Discussion 2.

Phillips, C. V., & Goodman, K. J. (2004). The missed lessons of Sir Austin Bradford Hill. Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations, 1(3). Retrieved from

In 1965, Austin Bradford Hill worked on a paper that has become a standard in public health and epidemiologic study about how to make decisions based on epidemiologic evidence. Hill put forth strategies for inferring causation and stressed the need for considering costs and benefits when planning health-promoting interventions. Review this article, which examines how Hill’s strategies are often misused or misinterpreted.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). CDC health disparities and inequalities report—United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Supplement, (60), 1–114. Retrieved from [Read pages 11–32]

This report consolidates national data on disparities in mortality, morbidity, behavioral risk factors, health care access, preventive health services, and social determinants of critical health problems in the United States by using selected indicators. The required section of reading introduces the social determinants of health and environmental hazards.

World Health Organization. (2011). Social determinants of health. Retrieved from

According to the World Health Organization, “The social determinants of health are mostly responsible for health inequities—the unfair and avoidable differences in health status seen within and between countries.” This article presents an introduction to social determinants of health.

World Health Organization. (2011). Social determinants of health: Key concepts. Retrieved from

This article outlines key concepts related to the social determinants of health.

Healthy People 2020. (2011). Social determinants of health. Retrieved from

This website presents an overview of the social determinants of health and addresses how the information relates to Healthy People 2020.

UCL Institute of Health Equity. (2012). ‘Fair society healthy lives’ (The Marmot Review). Retrieved from

Optional Resources

Genaidy, A. M., Lemasters, G. K., Lockey, J., Succop, P., Deddens, J., Sobeih, & Dunning, K. (2007). An epidemiological appraisal instrumental – a tool for evaluation of epidemiological studies. Ergonomics, 50(6), 920–960.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Social determinants of health. Retrieved from

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nursing leaders


In this assignment, you will be writing a 1,000-1,250-word essay describing the differing approaches of nursing leaders and managers to issues in practice. To complete this assignment, do the following:

  1. Select an issue from the following list: nursing shortage and nurse turn-over, nurse staffing ratios, unit closures and restructuring, use of contract employees (i.e., registry and travel nurses), continuous quality improvement and patient satisfaction, and magnet designation.
  2. Compare and contrast how you would expect nursing leaders and managers to approach your selected issue. Support your rationale by using the theories, principles, skills, and roles of the leader versus manager described in your readings.
  3. Identify the approach that best fits your personal and professional philosophy of nursing and explain why the approach is suited to your personal leadership style.
  4. Identify a possible funding source that addresses your issue. Consider looking at federal, state, and local organizations. For example: There are many grants available through the CDC, HRSA, etc.
  5. Use at least two references other than your text and those provided in the course.

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clinical care.

The first step of the Evidence Base Practice (EBP) process is to develop a question from the nursing practice problem of interest.

Select a practice problem of interest to use as the focus of your research.

Start with the patient and identify the clinical problems or issues that arise from clinical care.

Following the PICOT format, write a PICOT statement in your selected practice problem area of interest.

Conduct a literature search to locate research articles focused on your selected practice problem of interest. This literature search should include both quantitative and qualitative peer-reviewed research articles to support your practice problem.

Select six peer-reviewed research articles which will be utilized through the next 5 weeks as reference sources. Be sure that some of the articles use qualitative research and that some use quantitative research. Create a reference list in which the six articles are listed. Beneath each reference include the article’s abstract. The completed assignment should have a title page and a reference list with abstracts.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide


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health screening and history

In this assignment, you will be completing a comprehensive health screening and history on a young adult. To complete this assignment, do the following:

Select an adolescent or young adult client on whom to perform a health screening and history. Students who do not work in an acute setting may “practice” these skills with a patient, community member, neighbor, friend, colleague, or loved one.

Complete the “Health History and Screening of an Adolescent or Young Adult Client” worksheet.

Complete the assignment as outlined on the worksheet, including:

Biographical data
Past health history
Family history: Obstetrics history (if applicable) and well young adult behavioral health history screening
Review of systems
All components of the health history
Three nursing diagnoses for this client based on the health history and screening (one actual nursing diagnosis, one wellness nursing diagnosis, and one “risk for” nursing diagnosis)
Rationale for the choice of each nursing diagnosis.
A wellness plan for the adolescent/young adult client, using the three nursing diagnoses you have identified.

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The Product Life Cycle Part

Please respond to the following: “The Product Life Cycle Part”

Assess the value of the product life cycle as a tool for product succession planning and related product management activities. Give your opinion on whether or not the Product Life Cycle can help health care managers in promoting portfolio planning, strategy formulation, and forecasting.
Provide one (1) example to support your rationale.
Select two (2) stages of the Product Life Cycle. Describe the methods for strategically and tactically managing products during each of the selected stages. Relate the selected stages to two (2) real-life examples of strategic or tactical initiatives within a health care organization.

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culture, ethnicity, race, and socioeconomic status

Read the Case Story of A Day in the Sleep Clinic

After reading the story, click on the Activities link on the left side. Review Activity #1.

Address the following in a paper:

  1. What aspects of Dr. Williams’ behavior influence the decisions of the families he works with and possibly influence the ultimate health outcomes of their children?
  2. What roles do culture, ethnicity, race, and socioeconomic status play in families’ experiences in the health care system?
  3. What factors, other thanRead the Case Story of A Day in the Sleep Clinic

    After reading the story, click on the Activities link on the left side. Review Activity #1.

    Address the following in a paper:

    1. culture, ethnicity, race, and socioeconomic status
    2. What roles do culture, ethnicity, race, and socioeconomic status play in families’ experiences in the health care system?
    3. What factors, other than provider-patient communication, influence disparities in health outcomes?

    Assignment Expectations

    Length: 2–3 pages (excluding the cover page and the reference list).

    , influence disparities in health outcomes?

Assignment Expectations

Length: 2–3 pages (excluding the cover page and the reference list).

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Coordinated School Health

Instructions      You are the Director of Coordinated School Health for a large school district. Michelle is a teacher who  is anxious to develop a healthy lifestyle by starting an activity program. She has completed her health assessment and has received clearance from her physician to begin an activity program. She has come to you to get recommendations on how to proceed. Results from her fitness assessment and physical are below.    You will develop an Individual Activity Plan that includes a Summary of her Health History and Identification of health risks based on outcomes of each of the assessments. You will calculate, present and explain BMI, Waist-to-Hip ratio, Heart Rate Training Zone and Ideal Body Weight –be sure to show the calculation for each. You will then develop an activity plan (using the FITT principle) that encourages both Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Strength/Endurance. Finally, you will identify possible barriers and supports for the activity plan and identify strategies that will help lead to success.

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By the due date assigned, submit a document describing your approved aggregate in detail.

In Phase 2 of the project, research and describe the demographics and statistics of your aggregate. Include information about the basic vital statistics of the aggregate such as the crude birth rate, infant mortality rate, life expectancy, the leading causes of death, and any other relevant statistical information related to the health of the aggregate. In addition, explain how the local clinic meets, supports, and advocates for evidence-based practice (EBP). As a part of this assignment, you will need to create a questionnaire and interview at least one person who is familiar with your selected aggregate.


One of the most effective ways to obtain this information is to interview people who are familiar with and have worked with the selected aggregate, such as biostatisticians or other social and healthcare providers of the aggregate.

A well-planned questionnaire with carefully developed questions can help you elicit adequate and relevant information from the interviewees.

Your response should be in the form of a 2- to 3-page Microsoft Word document. Use relevant charts and graphs to support the information you collected. Identify the sources of your information and describe how you went about collecting the information.

Submission Details:

Phase 2: Describing the Aggregate

  • Name your Microsoft Word document SU_NSG4075_W2_Project_LastName_FirstInitial_Phase2.doc.
  • Submit your document to the Submissions Area by the due date assigned.
  • Cite all sources in APA format.

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effective health advocate

What does it take to be an effective health advocate? As a nurse, you have many opportunities to advocate for patients and populations, whether formally or informally. Being an advocate involves more than knowing how to lobby or to whom to write letters. It requires passion and compassion, commitment and courage.

In this Discussion, you will consider the attributes of an effective advocate for population health and/or the nursing profession. You will analyze those attributes that help nurses be a powerful force in improving the quality of health care and in this case especially, the needs of returning veterans and their families.

To prepare:

  • Review the article “On Being a Good Nurse: Reflections on the Past and Preparing for the Future” and “War, its aftermath, and U.S. health policy: Toward a comprehensive health program for America’s military personnel, veterans, and their families” found in this week’s Learning Resources.
  • Consider the multiple health care needs of returning veterans and their families.

Post two types of health needs returning veterans and their families might need. How might you advocate for the needs of this population. What type of advocacy skills would you need and how could you develop them. What responsibility does a nurse have to be an advocate? Give specific examples.

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U.S. health care delivery system

As the country focuses on the restructuring of the U.S. health care delivery system, nurses will continue to play an important role. It is expected that more and more nursing jobs will become available out in the community, and fewer will be available in acute care hospitals.

Write an informal presentation (500-700 words) to educate nurses about how the practice of nursing is expected to grow and change. Include the concepts of continuity or continuum of care, accountable care organizations (ACO), medical homes, and nurse-managed health clinics.

Share your presentation with nurse colleagues on your unit or department and ask them to offer their impressions of the anticipated changes to health care delivery and the new role of nurses in hospital settings, communities, clinics, and medical homes.

In 800-1,000 words summarize the feedback shared by three nurse colleagues and discuss whether their impressions are consistent with what you have researched about health reform.

A minimum of three scholarly references are required for this assignment.

While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

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