Question 1

A 2-year-old male is diagnosed with Wilms tumor. Which of the following clinical conditions is often associated with this disease?

a. Cystic disease of the liver
b. Aniridia
c. Anemia
d. Hypothyroidism

Question 2

A nurse is preparing to teach about the loop of Henle. Which information should be included? The descending segment of the loop of Henle primarily allows for:

a. Sodium secretion
b. Potassium secretion
c. Hydrogen ion reabsorption
d. Water reabsorption

Question 3

A nurse is describing the trigone. Which information should be included? The trigone is defined as:

a. The orifice of the ureter
b. The inner area of the kidney
c. A triangular area between the openings of the two ureters and the urethra
d. The three divisions of the loop of Henle

Question 4

When the nurse discusses the glomerulus and Bowman capsule together, it is referred to as the renal:

a. Corpuscle
b. Capsule
c. Medulla
d. Pyramid

Question 5

A 5-year-old male was diagnosed with glomerulonephritis.History reveals that he had an infection 3 weeks before the onset of this condition. The infection was most likely located in the:

a. bone.
b. gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
c. respiratory tract.
d. ear.

Question 6

A 75-year-old male reports to his primary care provider loss of urine with cough, sneezing, or laughing. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis the nurse will observe on the chart?

a. Urge incontinence
b. Stress incontinence
c. Overflow incontinence
d. Functional incontinence

Question 7

A nurse observes on the chart that a patient is admitted with Wilms tumors. A nurse knows the tumors are found in the:

a. kidneys.
b. ureters.
c. bladder.
d. urethra.

Question 8

A 35-year-old female was severely burned and is hospitalized. She is now suffering from acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis the nurse will observe on the chart?

a. Prerenal
b. Intrarenal
c. Extrarenal
d. Postrenal

Question 9

A 24-year-old female is diagnosed with renal calculus that is causing obstruction. Which of the following symptoms would she most likely experience?

a. Anuria
b. Hematuria
c. Pyuria
d. Flank pain

Question 10

If a nurse wants to obtain the best estimate of renal function, which test should the nurse monitor?

a. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
b. Circulating antidiuretic hormone (ADH) levels
c. Volume of urine output
d. Urine-specific gravity

Question 11

While planning care for a patient who has acute pyelonephritis. A nurse recalls the most common condition associated with the development of acute pyelonephritis is:

a. Cystitis
b. Renal cancer
c. Urinary tract obstruction
d. Nephrotic syndrome

Question 12

When a nurse is preparing to teach about urine, which information should the nurse include? Just before entering the ureter, urine passes through the:

a. Collecting duct
b. Renal pelvis
c. Urethra
d. Major calyx

Question 13

When a patient’s renal system secretes rennin, what effect will that cause in the body? It causes the direct activation of:

a. Angiotensin I
b. Angiotensin II
c. Antidiuretic hormone
d. Aldosterone

Question 14

Anemia accompanies chronic renal failure because of:

a. Blood loss via the urine
b. Renal insensitivity to vitamin D
c. Inadequate production of erythropoietin
d. Inadequate retention of serum iron

Question 15

A 4-year-old male is diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome.Which of the following assessment findings accompanies this condition?

a. Proteinuria
b. Decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
c. Hematuria
d. Sodium loss

Question 16

A 19-year-old female was involved in a motor vehicle accident during which she sustained a closed head injury. She is now experiencing detrusor sphincter dyssynergia. Which of the following is the most beneficial medication treatment?

a. Alpha blocker
b. Beta blocker
c. Vasodilator
d. Diuretic

Question 17

A 30-year-old male is demonstrating hematuria with red blood cell casts and proteinuria exceeding 3 to 5 g/day, with albumin being the major protein. The most probable diagnosis the nurse will see documented on the chart is:

a. cystitis.
b. chronic pyelonephritis.
c. acute glomerulonephritis.
d. renal calculi.

Question 18

A 25-year-old female is diagnosed with urinary tract obstruction. While planning care, the nurse realizes that the patient is expected to have hydronephrosis and a decreased glomerular filtration rate caused by:

a. decreased renal blood flow.
b. decreased peritubular capillary pressure.
c. dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces proximal to a blockage.
d. stimulation of antidiuretic hormone.

Question 19

A 15-year-old female presents with flank pain, irritability, malaise, and fever. Tests reveal glomerulonephritis. When the parents ask what could have caused this, how should the nurse respond?

a. poststreptococcal infection
b. nephropathy
c. nephrotic syndrome
d. potter syndrome

Question 20

A 60-year-old male is diagnosed with renal failure. While the nurse is reviewing lab results, which of the following lab values would be most consistent with this diagnosis?

a. Elevated plasma creatinine level
b. Decreased plasma potassium level
c. Metabolic alkalosis
d. Increased urea clearance

Question 21

While planning care for a patient with renal calculi, the nurse remembers the most important factor in renal calculus formation is:

a. urine pH.
b. body temperature.
c. gender.
d. serum mineral concentrations.

Question 22

A 30-year-old male is demonstrating hematuria with red blood cell casts and proteinuria exceeding 3 to 5 g/day, with albumin being the major protein. The most probable diagnosis the nurse will see documented on the chart is:

a. cystitis.
b. chronic pyelonephritis.
c. acute glomerulonephritis.
d. renal calculi.

Question 23

A 55-year-old male presents reporting urinary retention.Tests reveal that he has a lower urinary tract obstruction. Which of the following is of most concern to the nurse?

a. vesicoureteral reflux and pyelonephritis
b. formation of renal calculi
c. glomerulonephritis
d. increased bladder compliance

Question 24

The urologist is teaching about the nephrons that determine the concentration of the urine. The urologist is discussing the _____ nephrons.

a. Juxtamedullary
b. Midcortical
c. Cortical
d. Medullary

Question 25

A 42-year-old female is diagnosed with chronic renal failure, and the nurse is discussing dietary treatment. Which information indicates the nurse understands dietary regimen? Treatment includes restricting:

a. Fats
b. Complex carbohydrates
c. Proteins
d. Sugars

Question 26

When a newborn is admitted with urinary tract infections (UTIs), which type of infection will the nurse look for in the newborn?

a. blood-borne infections
b. infections caused by bacteria from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract
c. yeast infections
d. viral infections

Question 27

A nurse is reviewing urinalysis results and notices glucose is present in the urine. A nurse realizes glucose will be excreted in the urine when:

a. The maximum rate of glucose filtration is achieved
b. The carrier molecules have reached their maximum
c. Glucose is consumed
d. The ability of the kidneys to regulate blood glucose is lost

Question 28

A 42-year-old male is involved in a motor vehicle accident during which he loses a lot of blood. The nurse realizes he is in acute renal failure caused by:

a. kidney stones
b. immune complex deposition in the glomerulus
c. inadequate renal blood flow
d. obstruction of the proximal tubule

Question 29

On average the kidneys receive approximately _____ of the cardiac output.

a. 10-14%
b. 15-19%
c. 20-25%
d. 26-35%

Question 30

When a nurse is checking the urinalysis, plasma proteins should be absent from the urine because:

a. all filtered proteins are subsequently reab-sorbed.
b. the texture of the covering surrounding plasma proteins interferes with reabsorp-tion.
c. filtered proteins are subsequently degrad-ed before elimination.
d. the negative charge of the glomerular fil-tration membrane repels the plasma pro-teins.

Question 31

A 3-year-old female presents with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), fever, poor growth and development, and feeding problems.Tests reveal a retrograde flow of urine from the urinary bladder into the ureters. When giving report to the oncoming shift, the nurse will call this condition:

a. vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)
b. vesicourethral reflux
c. vesicoureteral influx
d. hydronephrosis

Question 32

A 6-year-old male is experiencing urine reflux from the urinary bladder into a grossly dilated ureter and calyces. He was diagnosed with vesicoureteral reflux. This condition would be graded:

a. I
b. II
c. III
d. IV

Question 33

A 35-year-old hypertensive male begins taking a diuretic.Which of the following common side effects of this medication should the nurse monitor?

a. Hypokalemia
b. Hyponatremia
c. Increased uric acid secretion
d. Hypermagnesemia

Question 34

A 27-year-old male has a severe kidney obstruction leading to removal of the affected kidney. Which of the following would the nurse expect to occur?

a. atrophy of the remaining kidney
b. compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining kidney
c. dysplasia in the remaining kidney
d. renal failure

Question 35

When a child is admitted with acute renal failure, a clinician realizes the most common cause of acute renal failure is:

a. glomerulonephritis.
b. obstruction.
c. nephrotic syndrome.
d. hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS).

Question 36

A 7-year-old male presents to his primary care provider for incontinence. His mother indicates that he has never been continent. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis the nurse will observe on the chart?

a. Nocturnal enuresis
b. Diurnal enuresis
c. Primary enuresis
d. Secondary enuresis

Question 37

While turning a patient with chronic renal failure, which principle should the nurse recall? Bone fractures are a risk factor in chronic renal failure because:

a. calcium is lost in the urine
b. osteoblast activity is excessive
c. the kidneys fail to activate vitamin D
d. autoantibodies to calcium molecules develop

Question 38

A 56-year-old male presents with flank pain and polyuria.Tests reveal that he has an enlarged prostate. Which of the following types of renal failure should the nurse monitor for as it is the most likely to occur?

a. prerenal
b. intrarenal
c. extrarenal
d. postrenal

Question 39

A 15-year-old male was diagnosed with pharyngitis. Eight days later he developed acute glomerulonephritis. While reviewing the culture results, which of the following is the most likely cause of this disease?

a. Kelbsiella
b. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
c. genital herpes virus
d. group A B-hemolytic streptococcus

Question 40

A 29-year-old female presents with cloudy urine, flank pain, hematuria, and fever. Which of the following does the nurse suspect the patient is most likely experiencing?

a. acute cystitis
b. renal calculi
c. chronic renal failure
d. postrenal renal failure

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